Document Type : Review article


College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, New Sulaimani, Street 27, Sulaimanyah, Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq.


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe and extremely contagious viral disease. Cow, sheep, goats, deer, pigs, and other animals with divided hooves are among the animals infected by the FMD virus. which is a member of the Picornaviridae family and genus Aphthovirus. There are seven different serotypes of this virus: Asia-1, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, A, O, and C. Heat, ultraviolet light, pH values of 6.5 or higher, gamma radiation, chemicals, and disinfecting agents all inactivate the virus; however, it remains virtually stable at below-freezing temperatures for a prolonged amount of time. Animals affected by this disease develop vesicular lesions on their tongue, dental pad, gums, cheek, hard and soft palates, lips, nostrils, muzzle, interdigital region (between the hoof), and a coronary band. Viral infections can spread through the respiratory tract or via oral cavity. Clinical manifestations of FMD are used to diagnose the disease, along with laboratory and epidemiological investigations. Due to the high morbidity linked to outbreaks, difficulties to the local adoption of more advanced production techniques, limitations on trade between countries, and expenses related to the implementation of control measures, FMD results in significant economic losses. FMD can be controlled and prevented through immunization, restrictions on animal migration, physical segregation from wildlife, and clinical therapy. However, FMD demonstrated challenging to control because of its complicated epidemiological nature, poor diagnostic capacity, and lack of cross-immunity between strains. Investigation is consequently essential to progress the creation of a multivalent and effective vaccination.


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